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Is the Subject Area Protein folding applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area Caenorhabditis elegans applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area Genetic suppression applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area Phenotypes applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area Genetics of disease applicable to this article.

Evans CG, Wisen S, Gestwicki JE 2006 Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 inhibit early stages of amyloid beta- 1 42 aggregation in vitro. J Biol Chem 281 33182 33191. The practice of insecticide-based control is fraught with issues of excessive cost, human and environmental toxicity, unwanted impact on beneficial insects and selection of resistant insects. A paratransgenic strategy to block transmission of Xylella fastidiosa from the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis.

Arthropod-borne diseases remain a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality and exact an enormous toll on global agriculture. Efforts to modulate insects to eliminate pathogen transmission have gained some traction and remain future options for disease control. Earlier, we identified Pantoea agglomeransa bacterial symbiont of the GWSS as the paratransgenic control agent. Here, we report a paratransgenic strategy that targets transmission of Xylella fastidiosaa leading bacterial pathogen of agriculture, by the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter GWSSHomalodisca vitripennis.

We genetically engineered P. Melittin and SLM were chosen as the effector molecules based on in vitro studies, which showed that both molecules have anti- Xylella activity at concentrations that did not kill P. agglomerans to express two antimicrobial peptides AMP -melittin and scorpine-like molecule SLM. Using these AMP-expressing strains of P.

agglomeranswe demonstrated disruption of pathogen transmission from insects to grape plants below detectable levels. This is the first report of halting pathogen transmission from paratransgenically modified insects. It is also the first demonstration of paratransgenic control in an agriculturally important insect vector. Plant diseases caused by pathogens that are transmitted by insects such as leafhoppers, planthoppers, aphids, whiteflies and thrips have profound implications on food security 2,3,4.

Despite advances in public health, arthropod vectors continue to exact a toll, either directly through transmission of human pathogens or indirectly by transmitting pathogens to animals and agricultural crops 1. The vector borne diseases are managed mainly by controlling insect populations using insecticides.

The side effects of chemical pesticides, including secondary pest outbreaks and selection for insect resistance, have confounded efforts to control these diseases and underscore the need to develop new approaches to pathogen control 5. Paratransgenesis, the modification of symbiotic microorganisms associated with insects, has been developed for several vectors of human pathogens such as triatomine bugs, tsetse flies, sandflies and mosquitoes i.

This strategy relies on delivery of anti-pathogen molecules within the insect vector via engineered symbiotic bacteria to make the insect incompetent to carry and transmit the pathogen 6. Several models of paratransgenic insects have been developed but none to date has been validated as a method to block transmission of a pathogen and prevent disease in a target host.

Here, we report the paratransgenic manipulation of an agricultural pest, Homalodisca vitripennis the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooterto block transmission of the bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosato grape plants. fastidiosa is currently a leading agricultural pathogen globally, as the causative agent of Pierce s disease PD of grapevines, citrus variegated chlorosis CVC of citrus crops and olive quick decline of olive trees 10,11,12.

Xylem-feeding sharpshooters and spittlebugs are the known vectors of X. fastidiosa 10, 13. vitripennis commonly known as the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter GWSS due to its long-range mobility and high fecundity, is the most important vector in California 14. We recently identified Pantoea agglomerans as a symbiotic bacterium of H. vitripennis and, using an EPA-approved non-pathogenic variant of Pantoeareported both paratransgenic manipulation and a field-applicable strategy to target GWSS with engineered bacteria 15.

Using this platform, we have engineered lines of P. agglomerans that secrete antimicrobial peptides AMP that kill X. vitripennis that is unable to infect target plants. Selection of melittin and scorpine-like molecules SLM as effector molecules. Melittin, a 26 amino acid-long peptide having an alpha- helix structure, is found in honeybee venom and kills cells through pore formation or by inducing apoptosis 16. SLM dbEST accession JZ818337 is an AMP found in the venom gland transcriptome of the scorpion Vaejovis mexicanus 17.

SLM is a 77 amino acid-long peptide and its amino-terminal region is similar to peptides of the cecropin family. fastidiosa and report here, for the first time, a pathogen-refractory H. I-TASSER predicted that SLM is composed of three coil-helix structures Additional file 1 Figure S1 18, 19. We tested activity of both peptides against X. fastidiosa as well as P. Melittin killed X. fastidiosa at a concentration of 5 μM, which was 20 of the concentration needed to kill P.

agglomerans 25 μM Fig. Toxicity of melittin and SLM against P. agglomerans and X. 10 5 10 6 CFUs of P. fastidiosa were treated with each AMP. 600 was measured 24 h after treatment of P. agglomerans with each AMP. Given the slow growth rate of X. fastidiosa, this organism was cultured 24 h after treatment with each AMP and CFUs were counted. agglomerans O. 600 after treatment with - a melittin, c SLM; X. fastidiosa CFUs counts after treating with - b melittin, d SLM.

Both melittin and SLM exerted greater toxicity toward X. fastidiosa than P. All values in each graph are combined results from two independent experiments. Similarly, SLM killed X. fastidiosa at a concentration of 25 μM; it had no effect on P. agglomerans even at a concentration of 75 μM Fig. The selective toxicity of these molecules to Opções binárias iq option pdf. fastidiosa renders them ideal effectors for paratransgenic manipulation of H.

Generation of AMP-expressing P. agglomerans strains. It is imperative that melittin and SLM interact with X. fastidiosa directly to kill it. To achieve this, P. agglomerans should be transformed in a way that the molecules are excreted rather than contained within the bacterial cytoplasm. agglomerans to accomplish the goal of AMP secretion 9, 20. An Escherichia coli hemolysin secretion system that has earlier been used to secrete active proteins into the outside environment of Gram-negative bacteria, was used to genetically engineer P.

coli hemolysin secretion system has two components HlyA secretion signal and two pore forming proteins, HlyB and HlyD. Peptides with HlyA secretion signal at the carboxyl end are recognized by the pores formed by HlyB and HlyD and are secreted out of the cytoplasm. We introduced genes encoding melittin or SLM in the plasmid, pEHLYA2-SD at the 5 end of the E-tag, which was in-frame with the HlyA secretion signal Additional file 2 Figure S2b.

Once the AMP genes were cloned into the pEHLYA2-SD plasmid, P. 3, a plasmid with HlyB and HlyD genes, and pEHLYA2-SD or pEHLYA2-SD-Mel or pEHLYA2-SD-SLM See Methods for details. agglomerans were transformed with pVDL9. The spent medium from P. agglomerans culture was tested for AMP production via Western blot using anti-E tag antibodies, which demonstrated accumulation of melittin conjugated with HlyA secretion signal. 29 kDaSLM conjugated with HlyA secretion signal.

34 kDa and HlyA secretion signal peptide alone. We also confirmed melittin expression using an anti-melittin bleed, which bound to melittin conjugated to HlyA secretion signal. 29 kDa as well as to synthetic melittin. 3 kDa Additional file 3 Figure S3a. a Western blot showing secretion and accumulation of melittin and SLM conjugated to HlyA secretion signal by transformed P.

agglomerans lines in spent media. Spent media from transformed P. agglomerans lines were concentrated using Micron 10 kDa filters. Concentrated spent medium was tested using an anti-E-tag antibody. Lane 1 ladder; lane 2 Wild type P. agglomerans ; lane 3 HlyA secretion signal only; lane 4 melittin conjugated to HlyA secretion signal; lane 5 SLM conjugated to HlyA secretion signal.

bc Western blots showing secretion and accumulation of melittin and SLM conjugated to HlyA secretion signal by transformed P. agglomerans lines in the GWSS gut. Extracts from homogenized GWSSs were tested for presence of AMPs using an anti-E-tag antibody. b Lane 1 ladder; lane 2 GWSS fed on P. agglomerans expressing melittin conjugated to HlyA secretion signal; lane 3 GWSS fed on wild type P.

agglomerans c Lane 1 ladder; lane 2 GWSS fed on P. agglomerans expressing SLM; lane 3 GWSS fed on wild type P. Five insects were tested individually for accumulation of SLM and melittin, and two insects were found positive for presence of both AMPs. Blocking transmission of X. fastidiosa from H. Results from two independent experiments were pooled after confirming that the experiments did not affect the outcome using a generalized linear mixed model.

GWSS that harbored AMP-producing P. agglomerans were refractory to X. fastidiosa acquisition; insects that carried melittin- or SLM-secreting P. agglomeranson an average, had X. fastidiosa burden that was 4. 2respectively, of the pathogen burden in control insects p Fig. Graphs showing a decrease in X. fastidiosa acquisition by paratransgenic GWSSs. agglomerans was painted on grape stems after mixing with guar gum. PA WT - wild type P. agglomerans ; PA HlyA - P. agglomerans expressing HlyA secretion signal only; PA Melittin - P.

agglomerans expressing melittin conjugated to HlyA; PA SLM - P. agglomerans expressing SLM conjugated to HlyA. The GWSSs were allowed to feed on Pantoea -painted plants for 48 h before putting them in a cage containing X. fastidiosa- infected plants for 48 h. Subsequently the GWSSs were collected and two GWSSs were caged per single naive grape plant for 24 h.

These GWSSs were surface sterilized and X. fastidiosa presence was assayed using rt-PCR. fastidiosa CFUs per insect head; b Percent of GWSSs carrying X. These are pooled results from two independent experiments. The paratransgenic GWSS that acquired melittin- and SLM- producing P. fastidiosafailed to transmit X. fastidiosa to the naïve grape plants, indicating decreased acquisition of X. fastidiosa by H. agglomerans strains prior to acquisition of X. vitripennis resulted in decreased pathogen transmission to naïve grape plants Fig.

Control GWSS and GWSS carrying wild type P. agglomerans transmitted X. fastidiosa 16. 7 and 20 of the time, respectively. GWSS that carried P. agglomerans, which secreted only the HlyA signal protein and not the AMP molecules also failed to transmit X. fastidiosa to the naïve plants. Decrease in X. fastidiosa transmission to grape plants by paratransgenic GWSSs. agglomerans were painted on grape stems after mixing with guar gum. The GWSSs were allowed to acquire P. agglomerans from P. agglomerans -painted plants for 48 h before an acquisition access period of 48 h on X.

fastidiosa -infected grape plants. Subsequently the GWSSs were collected and two GWSSs were then confined per naive grape plant. After 24 h of inoculation access, the insects were removed and the plants were kept in a greenhouse for 30 weeks before testing them for presence of X. fastidiosa using rt-PCR. GWSSs that acquired P. agglomerans expressing HlyA secretion signal, melittin conjugated to HlyA secretion signal and SLM conjugated to HlyA secretion signal did not transmit X.

Expression of AMP within H. GWSS that fed on AMP-expressing P. agglomerans were tested for presence of recombinant AMP molecules to confirm that decrease in Xylella transmission to grapevines was a result of AMP activity in the opções binárias iq option pdf gut. Western blot analysis confirmed presence of both melittin and SLM with attached HlyA secretion signals within the insects Fig. Further, we confirmed presence of melittin using anti-melittin serum Additional file 3 Figure S3b.

Prior studies with paratransgenic insect vectors demonstrated reduction or elimination of pathogens in the insects 6, 9. Here, we report a paratransgenic strategy that completely eliminates the detectable transmission of a pathogen from an arthropod to a target plant. Three molecules- the HlyA protein, melittin and SLM- when expressed in the GWSS via engineered P. agglomeransblocked transmission of X. fastidiosa to grape plants. Melittin and SLM decreased Xylella CFUs in paratransgenic GWSS to levels that should eliminate pathogen transmission even during periods of feeding that exceed the 24 h window used in our experimental model.

Additionally, under field conditions, several GWSS may feed on a single plant, unlike our experimental model in which only 2 insects were placed on target plants. Again, the level of elimination of X. fastidiosa in the insect achieved with melittin and SLM should block transmission under such real world conditions. HlyA alone did reduce X. fastidiosa acquisition by the GWSS and eliminated transmission in our study.

Similar results were also observed by Wang et al. 9 in paratransgenic mosquitoes, wherein they observed a 32 decrease in Plasmodium prevalence in mosquitoes carrying HlyA secretion signal-expressing P. agglomeransthough this reduction was not significant statistically. We believe that the impact of HlyA on X. fastidiosa may be more pronounced than the effect on Plasmodia due to greater susceptibility of the bacterial cell membrane.

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